Tom Palmer

About Tom Palmer

Tom is founder, chief content creator, tranformative experience designer and action learning coach at Wired Roots. He is passionate about supporting leaders, teams and organizations to embrace complex challenges by transitioning into new ways of thinking and approaching their work.

How Are You Developing the Most Important Ability You Possess?

January 18, 2018

It’s an extraordinary time to be alive. Most of us get to enjoy a standard of living that would have been unimaginable to our ancestors—lives filled with modern conveniences that make our experience of being here on Earth, relatively speaking, safe, comfortable, and even entertaining.

To highlight the progress we’ve made, consider this: according to the OWID, in the year 1820, 94.4% of the world’s population was living in extreme poverty. By 2015, that number was down to 9.6%.

So why are we so stressed, anxious, depressed, fearful and cynical ? Why do 1 in 6 adults in the United States—the pinnacle of modern convenience and comfort—live with a mental illness?

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While myself and most reading this won’t have to worry about our children starving this week, the challenges we face are not few. And perhaps even more significantly, they are not simple. We tend to get nostalgic about the past, not because it was more comfortable or entertaining, but because it was simpler.

What we have now is a complex world full of complex challenges.

We may be able to give our children food to eat, but what can we tell them about the world they will grow up in and work in and make lives for themselves in? What can we tell ourselves about this world?

A recent Forbes article cites that up to 65% of the jobs that Generation Z will perform do not exist yet (arguably, those born after the year 2000), and that 45% of the activities that people are paid to perform today could be automated with current technology.

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As this technology advances at an exponential rate, it’s no wonder we’re stressed out and anxious. We may be living in comfort like our ancestors could have never imagined, but we’re also facing some mind-bending realities that would not have entered into their wildest dreams.

Beyond the notion that hundreds of millions of us will soon be replaced by robots at work, we have a changing climate, terrorist attacks surrounded by questionable narratives, and world leaders who look and act a lot like cartoon characters as they threaten to launch nuclear missiles at each other.

But we’re not here to get whipped into a frenzy—we’re here to figure out how to not just survive in this strange new world, but to thrive here and into the future.

Just as it’s becoming more difficult to tell our kids exactly what they’re going to need to do to get ready for their future, it’s getting harder for others to tell us how to get ready for ours. In fact, we’re quickly getting to the point where we’re all going to have admit something that we’ve historically had a very hard time doing: we have no clue. We don’t have the answers.

Now, not having the answers for the future does not mean we become disempowered to act in the present. It just means we have to make a shift in how our actions are informed. Once upon a time we got trained up, filled with lots of good and relevant information, and we were released into the world largely knowing how to work and live there. Bid that world farewell.

In today’s world, we don’t get ready—we have to stay ready. We don’t learn in preparation for experience—we learn through experience. We don’t just consume knowledge—we create knowledge.

In other words, nobody can tell us what we’ll need to know, or be able to do—we’ll have to figure it out for ourselves as we go. We’ll have to pay attention and keep adjusting our course as we get better at what we do.

The Forbes article mentioned above, which is titled “This Skill Could Save Your Job—And Your Company,” is all about what the author calls learnability. Like it sounds, learnability is essentially your ability to keep learning, adapting and developing. We might think of it as the ability to navigate the process of figuring it out for ourselves as we go.

As we enter into this new age, this is the ability that allows us to remain sane, productive, relevant and useful. Without it we quickly become lost, confused, and obsolete. We become dinosaurs in a world that has moved on.

Although many of us understand this on some level, we tend to make a critical assumption that causes us some serious problems:

Because we’ve all spent thousands and thousands of hours learning, we assume that our learning skills can only improve incrementally.

With this assumption, we go about learning like we always have, which is largely centered on consuming information from experts. So we try to read more, and read faster, and get better at memorizing stuff, and improve how we are organizing this information.

There are a couple of important problems that come with this assumption. One is, like we’ve explored, the fact that the experts don’t have the answers we really need anyway. These answers are specific to our own unique context, and have to be discovered on a personal level.

Second, the information out there is growing exponentially. The total amount of data is currently doubling at an alarming rate of 12-13 months (at the beginning of the 20th century, it took around 100 years). One report by IBM states that with the development of the ‘internet of things,’ the amount of data out there will soon begin doubling every 12 hours.

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The thought of trying to keep up is a bit nauseating. Trying to do so with the ways we’ve learned how to learn puts us on the fast track to overwhelm and hopelessness. A new approach to learning is needed.

This new approach is not a replacement for our old info-consumption-based way of learning, which still has its place. It transcends and includes it—adding an evolving set of skills, tools and mindsets that are equipped for higher levels of complexity. Learning becomes less of a task, and more of a continuous practice. Learning becomes a way of life.

This learning practice orients and re-orients us as we move through a complex world. It gives us the compass we need to avoid spinning around in circles and feeling overwhelmed by all the information we are bombarded with from all angles on a daily basis. We become more strategic about where we’re headed and how we’re getting there, and with this comes increased confidence in our ability to do what we need to do, and decreased anxiety about the uncertainty we are facing.

So what does this practice look like? By nature, it will look a little different for each of us. Just as no one can tell you what exactly you need to do to get ready for what’s coming, no one can tell you exactly how to get there. But there are a few basic principles and patterns that are likely to run through each of our practices:

– Integrating our learning with our work and day-to-day lives.

– Shifting and expanding our mindsets to gain an understanding of complex systems by recognizing patterns of relationships (systems thinking).

– Becoming designers of our own experiences, strategically intervening in these systems by creating experiments, learning through these experiments, and continuously making adjustments to what we do and how we think about things.

– Establishing and nurturing mutually-supportive relationships across global networks. Knowledge is power, but you don’t have to—and can’t—have as much as you’ll need alone.

– Better understanding the tools we have at our disposal—both technological and biological (understanding how our minds work, how our behaviors are influenced, and how we evolve and co-evolve).

While this might seem like a monumental task in its entirety, it is in itself a continuous process that unfolds over time.

There are things that can be implemented quickly and can have a significant and immediate impact on your work and overall quality of life (like starting a daily reflective practice).

There are other aspects that will take time, and this is important: support. We need to help each other grow into this new way of being in a new world.

In this spirit, I’d like to offer some (free) support to you personally, as you look to transition into this new way of learning and developing in the complexity and uncertainty of the modern age.

This will take the form of a no-cost, no-sales, no-pressure free 30 minute coaching session. You can fill out the form below to schedule your free session.

In full disclosure, I’m not offering this because I have all the time in the world (I certainly don’t)—so if you’re wondering what the catch is, or what’s in it for me, I’ll be happy to tell you:

I get to learn from you. It’s part of my own process of learning into the complex challenge of how to support people to increase their learnability and thrive in a complex world.

I want to help you clarify your thinking and make a plan to take action. I also want to hear your story and understand your challenges on a deeper level.

A simple, no-money-exchange, win-win.

Let’s have a conversation! Fill out the form below:

Free Coaching Session

You will be redirected to a page to select the time for your free session.

Interview with Linda Biggs of Abeego

Linda Biggs is Head of Ops – People, Culture and Growth at Abeego, a company recognized for their work in beyond-sustainable consumer goods and whose mission is to “Keep Food Alive.” Linda’s passion is growing people and she has a unique background and perspective on how that happens best in a small, rapidly growing enterprise like Abeego (+400% in the last year).

In this interview we talk about transitioning out of hierarchical organizational structures, radical candor and building a healthy company culture, hacking the professional development system, tips for getting your heroes to have a coffee with you, and more.

Subscribe to this podcast on iTunes

By | 2017-12-13T17:43:59+00:00 December 13th, 2017|Categories: Uncategorized|0 Comments

Interview with Cynthia Scott of Changeworks Lab and Presidio Graduate School

Cynthia Scott, Ph.D., M.P.H., is the principal and founder of Changeworks Lab and core faculty in Sustainable Management at Presidio Graduate School in San Franscisco, California, USA. She has co-authored 14 books including Leadership for Sustainability and Change and Rekindling Commitment: How to Revitalize Yourself, Your Work and Your Organization.

Her diverse background in anthropology and psychology has led her from studying shamans in India to a career in organizational consulting and executive coaching that has spanned over 20 years. She calls herself a “pracademic,” who enjoys both working to help organizations make transitions to sustainable practices as well as creating transformative learning experiences for her students.

In this interview Cynthia and I discuss 21st century skills, building learning teams, cultivating the ability to see in systems, learnability, deep listening and more.

Regenerative Organizational Storytelling

It’s a strange phenomenon to see a mainstream acceptance of the sustainability movement, and at the same time to see large extractive and degenerative practices amplified in our globalized economy.

The term sustainability has been adopted across just about every industry — even Monsanto is using it to describe their approach to food systems development.

Yet it doesn’t take too much imaginative stretch to see how the concept has been corrupted and used to reinforce the status quo.

To sustain is to hold on, to maintain and to survive. It is embodied by the pattern of the circle, which promises that if we use just enough renewable resources and we recycle a bit that we’ll be alright.

It’s not exactly the inspiring narrative that will push us to reach our full potential as a species and to truly thrive here on Earth.

In contrast, when we look to nature we don’t find static circles — we don’t find life merely looking to hold on. Life in every form is continuously evolving. Energy is circling around, but it is also pushing forward toward higher forms of intelligence, abundance and diversity. It is more of a spiral than a circle. It is more regenerative than sustainable.

There are elements of guilt and shame in our quest to minimize the damage we cause to the planet. They likely come from a deep-seeded belief that we are inherently flawed, that we somehow don’t really belong here.

Until these beliefs are challenged, we will never evolve into the species we are capable of becoming — the species that has the potential to not only survive on this planet but to thrive deep into the future.

Screen Shot 2017-02-22 at 12.46.46 PMThe stories that we tell as organizations is where this shift begins. They must embrace the regenerative narrative — one in which the organization is supporting a holistic range of stakeholders to evolve toward their unique potential, to in turn support the evolution of the living systems to which they belong.

This includes the individuals, families, teams, communities and ecosystems that are all connected to the organization in interdependent relationships. How is your organization helping these systems to process tensions, embrace their unique essence and co-evolve toward their own inherent potential? That is the story to be crafted, lived and told.

Emergence & Learning

Screen Shot 2017-02-20 at 1.13.33 PMEmergence is a fascinating property of living systems.

When we say “the whole is greater than the sum of its parts,” emergence is that part that makes it greater.

It is the substance of unique relationship, and is often impossible to predict — what emerges may contain properties that are not found in any of the system’s interacting parts.

Take water for example. There is nothing “watery” about hydrogen or oxygen. Yet when they interact in the right way, water emerges.

We hold many beliefs about learning & development that were instilled through our own experiences being educated. Namely, that both learners and the learning environment must be strictly controlled. Sound familiar?

This belief in control does not prepare us to recognize and adapt to what is emerging in a complex world. It’s no wonder that we struggle like we do out in “the real world” after finishing our schooling.

When learning is designed to embrace emergence, we see that the most important aspects of it happen in real time.

Creating knowledge becomes less about cramming information into short-term memory and more about bringing together diverse perspectives, letting those perspective interact with one another, and positioning ourselves to harvest, reflect and adapt to what emerges.

The results are the flexible, resilient, and agile learners and organizations that this increasingly complex world is demanding.

It becomes less about what you know, and more about how you are learning right now.

By | 2017-02-20T16:16:40+00:00 February 20th, 2017|Categories: Daily Blog, Emergence, Living Systems|Tags: , , |0 Comments

Complex Challenges and Learning through Dialogue

Most of us possess some degree of the belief that a quick, miraculous fix is on its way. That it’s only a matter of time before some new technology makes our complex problems go away.

It’s not too difficult to see how and why this belief is perpetuated and reinforced by marketing campaigns, driving the consumer lifestyle.

Yet more often than not (and on some level, always) this hope leads to disappointment. The product didn’t deliver the results it promised. Or, even if some small challenge is overcome, another unexpectedly pops up in its place.

Building solutions to these types of problems is relatively easy — it’s also very lucrative, as it produces an endless supply of customer needs. A clear example is the ‘health’ industry with its ever-expanding volumes of diseases and drugs.

Yet how many of us truly believe that a magic pill will come along and make us genuinely healthy — a pill that will allow us to go on with our unhealthy lifestyles?

Clearly health is not achieved with a purchase. It is a process in which decisions are made differently and ways of thinking are changed. Ultimately, it is a learning process — we create small experiments and adjust as we begin to receive feedback from our bodies.

The same is true for organizational health. As with an individual, the change begins when we start listening and responding to what the system is telling us. It is fundamentally the engagement in dialogue that drives the system’s evolution toward greater states of well being.

We can see our complex challenges as products of unhealthy relationships, or relationships that lack healthy dialogue. Physicist David Bohm writes of the type of dialogue that’s needed:

arrows-796133_960_720“Dialogue is really aimed at going into the whole thought process and changing the way the thought process occurs collectively. We haven’t really paid much attention to thought as a process. we have engaged in thoughts, but we have only paid attention to the content, not to the process.”

The shift that is underway in learning, and must be accelerated, is away from one-way exchanges of content and toward the facilitation of dialogue in which the thinking on both sides is transformed.

Away from a magical information dump that will suddenly give employees what they need to solve problems, toward a continuous process of thinking and seeing problems differently.

Like the individual making the decision to live a healthy lifestyle, turning their attention to listening, experimenting and learning, so does the organization looking to thrive in the 21st century.

By | 2017-02-15T15:25:45+00:00 February 15th, 2017|Categories: Complexity, Daily Blog, Dialogue, Problem Solving|Tags: , |0 Comments

3 Brains are Better than 1

Heart BrainWe tend to think of learning as something that happens in our heads. Yet when we are faced with a difficult decision, we might find ourselves ‘trusting our gut’ or ‘following our heart.’

Modern neuroscience is catching up with what we’ve instinctually recognized for a long time. It’s showing that both the heart and the gut possess independent neural networks that could be considered ‘brains’ in their own right.

We rely on these systems of neurons to help us make decisions that our head brain (our intellect) cannot make alone.

In their recent book mBraining: Using Your Multiple Brains to do Cool Stuff, authors Grant Soosalu and Marvin Oka identify 3 prime functions of each brain:

Heart Brain: Emoting (emotional processing), Values (processing what’s important to you, priorities), and Relational Affect (your felt connection with others). The highest expression of the heart brain is compassion.

Gut Brain: Core Identity (a deep and visceral sense of core self), Self Preservation (protection of self, boundaries, safety, hungers and aversions), and Mobilization (motility, impulse for action, courage and the will to act). The highest expression of the gut brain is courage.

Head Brain: Cognitive Perception (cognition, perception, pattern recognition, etc.), Thinking (reasoning, abstraction, analysis, synthesis, meta-cognition, etc.), and Meaning Making (semantic processing, languaging, narrative, metaphor, etc.). The highest expression of the head brain is creativity.

See the full article from the authors here.

This research has important implications for how we approach learning & development, which has largely been focused on our head brains.

The key to making better decisions may very well lie in our ability to think in a more integrative way, consciously activating the several cognitive systems throughout our bodies to consider the best course of action.

How do we learn to do this better?

 

By | 2017-02-14T15:10:11+00:00 February 14th, 2017|Categories: Cognitive Science, Daily Blog|0 Comments

Re-Patterning Organizations, Guided by Nature

August 10, 2016

I recall as a young student being presented with a diagram, depicting humans on the top of a pyramid representing the food chain. At the bottom were the microorganisms, the fungi, bacteria, etc.

Even then I can remember wondering, “don’t bacteria eat everything? Why are they at the bottom?”

The linear, top-down pattern of the pyramid diagram didn’t match up with my experience, which suggested it was more complex than that.

Here’s a graphic that sums up this difference pretty well:

Screen Shot 2016-08-10 at 9.01.21 AM

The hierarchical structure named ‘ego’ by the artist reflects a certain mental model or worldview. It sees the human being as a dominator of nature, set apart and ultimately alone. ‘Nature’ shows us different — a complex and dynamic web of interdependent relationships.

This anthropocentric view, representing the ego of the human collective, permeates into other realms of our activity. It is reflected in the way we organize and make decisions:

Screen Shot 2016-08-10 at 9.01.34 AM

Here we can see how the belief that we as a species are set apart creates a mental model that, often unconsciously, affects how we design our communities and organizations. The collective ego translates into the individual ego, where we become not merely dominators of other species, but dominators of one another fighting for power and control.

We can also see how this produces a vicious cycle — seeing ourselves above the rest of nature, we do not look to it for insights on how to act. Therefore the patterns that we have invented and forcefully imposed persist, the result being an exploitative, extractive civilization that has severely degenerated the resource base on which it depends for survival while dis-empowering the vast majority to serve a select few.

As things change at a faster and faster rate, creating higher degrees of complexity, these mental models that do not correspond to natural patterns begin to quickly fail. Organizations with top-down power structures are finding it hard to adapt to these changes — they do not allow for decisions to be made quickly enough to keep up.

The challenges are not few moving forward. Existing organizational leadership will have to be willing to analyze their existing mental models and be open to transforming them. This will not be effective as a superficial process — it will require deep questioning and a relinquishing of the desire for overarching power and control. Some leaders are sure to resist the shift, to their own detriment and that of their organization.

As organizations with leadership who are unwilling to question their mental models begin to fail, new ones will need to emerge guided by new models.

This shift, though still in its infancy, is clearly underway. Frederic LaLoux’s book Reinventing Organizations paints a clear picture of the evolution of the organization out of a rigid, pyramidal pattern and into ‘complex adaptive systems’ with distributed authority, self-managing and self organizing structures that allow for the emergence of natural hierarchies as found in nature.

These ‘teal’ organizations empower individuals on all levels to think and act locally, creating an agile network that can quickly respond to changes in the environment as they emerge.

‘Dynamic governance’ frameworks such as Sociocracy 3.0 and Holocracy have been highly influential in the re-patterning process within such orgs. In both, a fundamental pattern is one of nested ‘circles’. It looks something like this:

Screen Shot 2016-08-10 at 9.07.14 AM

 

Here highly autonomous teams are formed around different functions of the organization. While they are largely empowered to make decisions locally, they are also ‘nested’ inside larger circles (groups of representatives from other smaller circles) to support the decision-making process in various ways.

In place of ‘hierarchy’, the term ‘holarchy’ has been used to describe this pattern of nested communities, where each unit is seen as both being autonomous and connected to the larger whole. This is in fact how nature functions, from atoms to molecules to cells, organisms, communities and ecosystems — each both a unique individual and at the same time an inseparable part of the larger systems in which they are nested.

The ways in which these components interact with one another and across borders with other systems to co-evolve is of principal interest. How we structure our communities and organizations must be ever-more informed by our understanding of how natural systems function to learn, adapt and evolve with the changing times.

By | 2017-02-14T13:52:30+00:00 August 10th, 2016|Categories: Uncategorized|Tags: , , , , |0 Comments

Learning, Makerspaces, and Resilient Communities

July 14, 2016

There was a time, not long ago, when communities produced most of what they needed locally. The blacksmith, the tailor, the shoemaker and the woodworker crafted their products with care as they were likely to end up in familiar hands (or on familiar feet). Through their work local relationships were formed and nurtured, creating tight-knit and resilient communities.

Many modern communities have lost these relationship-forming roles. Products are shipped in from across the world, made by those who the user will never know. The community weakens as relationships become superficial — no longer based on the interdependence of local production. Neighbors become strangers with vague professions.

The Village, or Township, is a fundamental pattern in human habitation. It has been said that “it takes a village to raise a child.” So what happens when the bonds on which a strong community are degraded?

I’d argue that we do not fully understand the implications and the symptoms of such an event. Could our epidemics in depression, anxiety, suicide, and drug abuse be related to losing our sense of community — sense of belonging? There are some studies that suggest this is exactly the case.

While support groups and social clubs can help to alleviate this to a certain degree, they rarely provide the deep-rooted sense of belonging that comes from local productivity. The benefits of such interactions are often intangible. But when I create something for someone else, when I hand it to them personally, when I get to see them use it or I get to ask them about how they liked it the next day, the relationship feels more tangible — more real.

Not to mention the environmental benefits of keeping resources local, decreasing the waste produced by moving products around and creating a sense of accountability for the means of production. When things are produced “way over there” we tend to lower our standards and look the other way when corners are cut. When they are produced locally, we pay more attention.

The good news is that we are starting to head back in that direction, though there is much work to be done. One particular technology that is helping to push this movement is the 3D printer. Incredible powers of production have been suddenly granted us. Much of what we are currently importing from afar can again be created locally.

Spaces for local collaboration and production, or makerspaces, are popping up in communities around the globe. Here locals can gain access to 3D printers and other equipment for designing and creating their products.

How might this work to regenerate those relationship-cultivating roles of local production? How do we get there?

We may find clues to that second question in initiatives like this:

While 3D printers and other productive technologies are now being used in some mainstream educational systems, they are also creating systems of their own. They are helping to shift the learning paradigm toward learner-centered environments where students can explore, create and collaborate. Here opportunities are discovered for using these technologies to solve real-world, community-level problems, to form enterprises, and to produce locally.

It will likely be the tech-savvy youth who will transform these fringe initiatives into mainstream practices. The reason is simple: it is a process of learning, of shifting perspective and of embracing new ways of thinking and doing. Young people have the mental agility to do this well. Their conditioning is more superficial — the roots of the old ways have not yet penetrated the cores of their still-forming worldviews.

With our growing awareness of this, we have an opportunity to support them to embrace this emerging future full of possibilities — for creating strong and more resilient communities, for taking better care of the Earth and each other, for living higher-quality lives.

It will require that we work to break from our own conditioning around the ways we are expected to educate younger generations. That is, seeing that we don’t have all the answers for them, that those answers they will have to discover themselves. Our role is shifting. One way to articulate this shift, common in some educational circles, is from “sage on the stage” to “guide on the side.” We look for ways to empower and support rather than indoctrinate and control.

Designing and creating the environments and support structures to facilitate this type of discovery becomes a critical focal point. What does the future learning environment look like? One thing is for certain — it doesn’t look like this:

We are all affected by the degradation of community-level relationships, brought on by the fact that we depend on each other less than we used to for our day-to-day livelihoods. Regenerating those bonds, and the community as whole, will come from re-establishing a sense of interdependence. New technologies such as 3D printing and others can facilitate this, but not without an effort made to flex our mindsets and embrace new ways of thinking and learning.

Augmented Reality and Regenerative Design

May 18, 2016

Augmented Reality combines digital elements with the real world. If you’re familiar with Google Glass you probably have a handle on the concept. Or you might find yourself thinking of a scene from one of the Terminator films.

Like virtual reality and artificial intelligence, augmented reality promises to be a massively impactful technology for mainstream culture in the developed world and beyond.

Many are (reasonably) concerned that this will amount to a further disconnect from the natural world. For many it likely will.

However I would argue that these tools, if used wisely, can be powerful and transformative in positive ways as well. One example is how they might affect how we design our lives and the spaces that we occupy.

Check out this short demo of an augmented reality program used for interior design:

[video_player type=”youtube” width=”560″ height=”315″ align=”center” margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”20″]aHR0cHM6Ly93d3cueW91dHViZS5jb20vd2F0Y2g/dj0wT1dKYjJyc3VvZw==[/video_player]

It’s easy to imagine how this could play out for designing other types of things such as products, buildings, landscapes, communities and cities.

It’s worthwhile to note that the technology is still in its infancy. Developers are currently working on new ideas such as embedding it into contact lenses.

Let’s think for a moment what it might be like to look out at your backyard and experiment with different arrangements of trees, ponds, gardens, etc. Programs could be built to provide automated feedback on selections based on soil type, climate, or proximity to other elements.

Maybe it is connected to a network of seed or seedling providers that you can order from based on your location. Lot’s of possibilities.

One advantage relates to an important aspect of modern design – creating cycles of rapid prototypes that can be shared and that generate feedback. Virtual communities can be created that support designers by sharing ideas and perspectives.

Related is the way this is affecting design education (or even broader, the role of design in education).

A recent study conducted with students in a university sustainable design program compared the process of redesigning a building wall with paper vs designing with an augmented reality app.

The results are interesting, showing that students who completed the design activity using the app:

  • all completed multiple design iterations in the designated time (compared to 17 and 30% using paper).
  • were able to consider between 8 and 10 times more design iterations than those using paper.
  • considered using close to 3 times as many materials.
  • felt less rushed and enjoyed the activity more.

It’s worth mentioning too that the app was brand new for all participants, so we can imagine these numbers would only increase as they moved through the learning curve.

The big challenge with these new technologies will be in creating a sense of balance. As they get better and better, so does that challenge.

And whether we want them to or not, they are not only coming – they are already here. I tend to agree with thinkers like Noam Chomsky who see technology as neutral. A tool like any other, as valuable as the ways in which it is used.

Can these new tools be used to connect us to our environment rather than separate us from it? That depends on how we decide to embrace them.

 

 

By | 2017-02-14T13:53:01+00:00 May 18th, 2016|Categories: Uncategorized|Tags: , , |9 Comments
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